FM 31-12: Army Forces in Amphibious Operations (the Army Landing Force)
Within the Army mission "to seize, occupy and defend landareas" is an inherent requirement for strategic and tactical mobility. As a basic means of deployment of Army forces in an offensive posture, the amphibious operation is vital to the accomplishment of the Army mission. By design, the amphibious operation affords an Army, force a mobile base from which the force is projected ashore for assault landings and seizure of the lodgment area required to prosecute subsequent land operations.
The capability of projecting Army assault forces ashore from a mobile sea base in conjunction with assault by airborne forces provides for selective application of optimum combat power.
In an amphibious attack, assault landing teams are moved rapidly from ship-to-shore in landing craft, amphibious vehicles,and helicopters. Army amphibious vehicles and helicopters used for ship-to-shore movement afford mobility to assault landing teams during their advance to objectives inland.
This manual is written primarily from the viewpoint of the commander. It emphasizes the differences between amphibious operations and normal land warfare. It provides basic guidance for participation in amphibious operations by an Army force as a component of an amphibious task force.
- 1963-06-12: Change No. 1
- 1961-03-28: [pdf]